Contact Us Today

Name
Phone
E-mail

Need Help With Website Design?

Need Help With Search Engine Optimization?

Need
A Good CPA?

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
CHECK POINT 64: THE DESIGN OFFICE

Please Select Any Topic In Check Point 64 Below And Click.

1. what needs to be designed?
2. is design really necessary?
3. Lean Operational Guidelines
4. Lean Operational Guidelines Related To Design
5. trends in the product, service, and process design
6. the design office
7. the purpose of drawings and blueprints
8. design office efficiency
9. product and components coding methods
10. small business example
the product and components coding method
11. the product modification procedure
12. design office planning and control
13. small business example
design work progress report
14. small business example
design time allocation schedule
15. small business example
drawing issue and revision report
16. for serious business owners only
17. the latest information online
 

DO I NEED TO KNOW THIS CHECK POINT?

 

WELCOME TO CHECK POINT 64

TUTORIAL 1 General Management TUTORIAL 2 Human
Resources Management
TUTORIAL 3 Financial Management TUTORIAL 4 Operations Management TUTORIAL 5 Marketing
And Sales Management
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96
2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97
3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 83 88 93 98
4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 94 99
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
 

HOW CAN YOU BENEFIT FROM CHECK POINT 64?

 
The main purpose of this check point is to provide you and your management team with detailed information about the Design Office and how to apply this information to maximize your company's performance.
 
In this check point you will learn:
 
• About the importance of the design office.
• About the design process tasks.
• About lean guidelines related to design.
• About trends in product, service, and process design.
• About the design office objectives, activities, and tasks.
• About the purpose of drawings and blueprints.
• About the design office efficiency.
• About product and components coding methods.
• About steps in product modification procedures.
• About design office planning and control... and much more.
 

LEAN MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR CHECK POINT 64

 
You and your management team should become familiar with the basic Lean Management principles, guidelines, and tools provided in this program and apply them appropriately to the content of this check point.
 
You and your team should adhere to basic lean management guidelines on a continuous basis:
 
Treat your customers as the most important part of your business.
Provide your customers with the best possible value of products and services.
Meet your customers' requirements with a positive energy on a timely basis.
Provide your customers with consistent and reliable after-sales service.
Treat your customers, employees, suppliers, and business associates with genuine respect.
Identify your company's operational weaknesses, non-value-added activities, and waste.
•. Implement the process of continuous improvements on organization-wide basis.
Eliminate or minimize your company's non-value-added activities and waste.
Streamline your company's operational processes and maximize overall flow efficiency.
Reduce your company's operational costs in all areas of business activities.
Maximize the quality at the source of all operational processes and activities.
Ensure regular evaluation of your employees' performance and required level of knowledge.
Implement fair compensation of your employees based on their overall performance.
Motivate your partners and employees to adhere to high ethical standards of behavior.
Maximize safety for your customers, employees, suppliers, and business associates.
Provide opportunities for a continuous professional growth of partners and employees.
Pay attention to "how" positive results are achieved and constantly try to improve them.
Cultivate long-term relationships with your customers, suppliers, employees, and business associates.

1. WHAT NEEDS TO BE DESIGNED?

IMPORTANCE OF THE DESIGN OFFICE

Business owners and operations managers need to be familiar with various issues related to the design office which plays a highly important role in many manufacturing and project management companies.


If you look around, you will find many things that surround you.

WHAT IS AROUND YOU?

1.

The chair you are sitting on.

2.

The desk you are sitting at.

3.

The carpet you are walking on.

4.

The window next to your desk.

5.

The door to your office.

6.

The computer you are using.

7.

The printer you are using for printing.

8.

The paper you are printing on.

9.

The pen you are holding.

10.

The telephone which is ringing.

 

DID YOU DESIGN SOMETHING LATELY?

You may wonder what do all these things have in common? The answer is: 

All these things were designed by someone. 

In 99 percent of instances this someone was not an attorney, not an accountant, not a writer, not a dentist, but probably an engineer, or a designer, or an inventor, or a team of designers, or design engineers. 

So, next time you use something, ask yourself three questions presented below.

THREE QUESTIONS RELATED TO DESIGN

1.

How was this product, service, or process designed or provided?

2.

How was this product, service, or process made or developed?

3.

How does this product, service, or process work?

 
Jane Fulton Suri, an expert in product design, asks another important question which can be very helpful in the overall design process:
 
What Nature Can Teach Us About Design?
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Design Thinking Part 1 By Fabian Schlage.
Design Thinking Part 2 By Fabian Schlage.
Steve Jobs On Design By EverySteveJobsVieo.
The Design Process By Prof. Fronczak, Wisconsin Mrsec.
Thinking About Design By Fraser Muggeridge, RecreativeUK.

2. IS DESIGN REALLY NECESSARY?

IS DESIGN REALLY NECESSARY?

Whether you are a manufacturer or service provider, you will always find yourself and your management team involved in designing something new for your organization. The Design Process must be initiated to accomplish several tasks outlined below.

DESIGN PROCESS TASKS

1.

New product design or product modification.

2.

New component design or component modification.

3.

New service design or service modification.

4.

New project design or project modification.

5.

New process design or process modification.

6.

New facility design or facility modification.

7.

New tools and fixtures design and modification.

 

THE DESIGN PROCESS CHALLENGE

The amount of Design Work within your company will depend upon the specific nature of your company's activities and objectives. It will also depend upon the dedication of your management team to meet the challenges imposed by competition in the market place and your team's ability to meet such challenges.

It is essential, therefore, that you and your management team become fully familiar with world class operational guidelines which will provide essential guidance in the process of designing products, services, and processes.

3. LEAN OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES

LEAN OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES

Lean Operational Guidelines contain a set of parameters originating from the traditional operational management and coupled with the requirements imposed by several methodologies, developed in the recent decades, and outlined below. These methodologies represent the basis of Lean Operations and provide the foundation for a Lean Operational Organization. Each of these methodologies is discussed in detail in Tutorial 4.

LEAN OPERATIONAL METHODOLOGIES

1.

Lean Supply Chain Management.  
Lean Supply Chain Management is a very important management methodology  which entails coordination of various activities related to movement of materials from suppliers through distributors to end-users. This methodology deals with many traditional issues, such as purchasing of raw materials, components, and services from various suppliers, outsourcing work to sub-contractors, evaluating suppliers and sub-contractors, storing materials in the operational facility, evaluating the quality of materials and services, managing the dispatch and shipping of finished products to customers, and other related issues.

Supply Chain Management is discussed in detail in Tutorial 4.

2.

Total Quality Management (TQM). 
Total Quality Management prescribes complete re-evaluation of all company activities, particularly in the area of operational management, with a prime objective to identify problematic areas, minimize their effect on the quality of products and services provided by the company, to increase overall quality, productivity, and profitability.

Total Quality Management is discussed in detail in Tutorial 4.

3.

Kaizen.  
Kaizen is a major Japanese management methodology which prescribes a gradual and unlimited improvement of everything within the organization. This includes Total Quality Control Program for products and services, Just-In-Time methodology, cross-functional management, profit planning, human resources  management, systems improvement, and much more.

Kaizen  is discussed in detail in Tutorial 4.

4.

Just-In-Time (JIT).
Just-In-Time is another effective Japanese operational management methodology which prescribes complete elimination of waste in the total manufacturing or operational process, from purchasing of raw materials through distribution of finished goods. JIT also incorporates the concepts of total quality throughout  the manufacturing or operational processes, reduced set-up time, pull system, JIT purchasing, employee participation, and teamwork.

Lean Management is discussed in detail in Tutorial 1.

4. LEAN OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES RELATED TO DESIGN

LEAN OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES RELATED TO DESIGN

Lean Operational Guidelines related to design of products, services, and processes, outlined below, will help you to focus your attention on what is really important for the continuous success of your business.

LEAN OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES RELATED TO DESIGN

1.

Continuous improvement in the product design.

2.

Continuous improvement in the process design.

3.

Continuous improvement in the service design.

4.

Maximum use of interchangeable parts in the product design.

5.

Continuous product standardization.

6.

Continuous service standardization.

7.

Maximum use of the computer-aided design (CAD) programs and facilities.

8.

Maximum use of the combined CAD-CAM technology.

9.

Maximum use of NC and CNC machines.

10.

Continuous improvement in the material handling equipment and facilities.

11.

Continuous improvement in the operational or production facilities.

12.

Continuous improvement in the plant capacity utilization.

13.

Continuous improvement in the product quality and reliability.

14.

Continuous improvement in the service quality and reliability.

15.

Continuous improvement in the process quality and reliability.

16.

Continuous improvement in tooling and fixtures.

17.

Continuous improvement in plant, machinery, and equipment maintenance.

 

IDENTIFY AND PRIORITIZE THE DESIGN TASKS

Whatever the Design Tasks are, it is essential, that you and your management team identify and prioritize those tasks and deal with them in a timely manner to secure the continuous success of your organization. Some of those tasks may be handled by your operations managers while other tasks may be handled by your designers, engineers, and maintenance employees.

5. TRENDS IN THE PRODUCT, SERVICE, AND PROCESS DESIGN

PRODUCT, SERVICE, AND PROCESS DESIGN

Lean operational guidelines have a very strong influence on the existing Trends In The Product, Service, And Process Design as outlined below.

TRENDS IN THE PRODUCT, SERVICE, AND PROCESS DESIGN

1.

Increased attention to the customers' satisfaction.

2.

Increased attention to designing products, services, and processes that are user-friendly.

3.

Increased attention to reducing the manufacturing or operational cost of products, services, and processes.

4.

Increased attention to improving the quality and reliability of products, services, and processes.

5.

Increased attention to reducing the time of product or service introduction in the marketplace.

6.

Increased attention to reducing the products manufacturing time, and the service or process operational time.

7.

Increased attention to maximizing the productivity within the operational facility.

8.

Increased attention to maximizing the plant, machinery, and equipment capacity utilization within the operational facility.

9.

Increased attention to the environmental requirements and recycling related to products, services and processes.

10.

Increased attention to designing products, services, and processes that require less materials, components, and procedures.

11.

Increased attention to designing products that require less packaging.

 

BE AWARE OF THE EXISTING DESIGN TRENDS

It is essential that you and your management team take into consideration all the above mentioned trends to secure the competitiveness of your company in the marketplace.

Depending upon your company's size and specific objectives, you may also find it useful to combine all your company's design and modification efforts under "one roof", namely the design office.

6. THE DESIGN OFFICE

THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THE DESIGN OFFICE

The prime objective of the Design Office, or the Engineering Design Department or Research And Development Department (R & D), is to coordinate all the design, development, and modification efforts within the organization and to keep them under "one roof".

The work carried out in the design office usually includes a substantial use of Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technology in the process of determining specific parameters, or preparing drawings or blueprints for newly designed products, components, or services, or any other related design work.

THE DESIGN OFFICE OBJECTIVES

1.

All design and modification efforts are communicated to concerned parties.

2.

There is no duplication and waste of time during the design and modification processes.

3.

There is maximum utilization of existing operational design capacity, namely designers' man-hours and computer hardware and software capabilities.

4.

There is maximum coordination with the operational facility where the real action takes place.

The Design Office may coordinate several important activities and tasks within the operational facility as outlined below.

THE DESIGN OFFICE ACTIVITIES AND TASKS

1.

Design and modifications of products.

2.

Design and modifications of processes.

3.

Design and modifications of services.

4.

Design and modifications of tools and fixtures.

5.

Design and modifications of plant, equipment, and accessories.

6.

Design and modifications of material handling equipment.

7. THE PURPOSE OF DRAWINGS AND BLUEPRINTS

DRAWINGS AND BLUEPRINTS

The design office represents an integral part of the overall design effort by the company and provides an essential facility during the product, service, and process development.

Technical Drawings and Blueprints are commonly used in various industries to transmit specific information from the drawing board, or the computer screen by utilizing the Computer-Aided Design (CAD), to the operations department.

THE PURPOSE OF DRAWINGS AND BLUEPRINTS

1.

Drawings and blueprints represent one of the most important descriptive methods used in the process of product or service design. In certain industries, drawings or blueprints may be replaced by technological process layouts, or relevant manufacturing, or operational specifications.

2.

Drawings and blueprints are prepared by the draftsmen-designers or CAD designers in the design office. The design office is responsible for the preparation, issue, and amendment of all completed drawings and blueprints.

3.

Drawings and blueprints should contain relevant details required for the manufacturing process of a particular product or component such as type of material, physical dimensions, technical specifications, codes, and references to relevant standards.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

What Is CAD By ATETV.
3D CAD First Look By SlidWorks.
Introduction To CAD By Anoop Chawla, Nptelhrd.
Using Computer-Aided Design By TheMagicModel.
Computer-Aided Design By Laura LeMire, CQEflash.

8. DESIGN OFFICE EFFICIENCY

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING

Efficiency in the design office depends primarily upon the extent to which Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) are implemented within a company. According to recent surveys, the CAD-CAM technology enhanced design office productivity by 10 -20 times and much more.

Additional details related to Product And Service Design And Standardization and Process Design are provided in this Tutorial.

DESIGN OFFICE EFFICIENCY

1.

Since there are so many new engineering design software programs available on the market at present, the entire procedure of the product and process design has become  substantially more efficient in comparison with the previous decades.

2.

The efficiency of the design office depends upon the existing product range offered by the company to its customers. A particular product range may sometimes dictate the number of parts per product created by designers.

3.

The productivity of the manufacturing department also starts at the drawing board, or at the computer screen, and depends substantially on the complexity of a specific product design.

4.

Often a particular range of products can be designed and manufactured on a more economical basis if the products have a number of interchangeable parts. Sometimes, minor modifications of existing parts can also prove useful in the process of component-per-product reduction and product and service standardization.

5.

It is important to ensure that every new product has a minimal number of parts without imposing unnecessary restrictions upon the creative abilities of the designer.

6.

It is also advisable to avoid using any special types of raw materials, fasteners, and other commodities, and to use all standard materials and sizes normally obtainable from the appropriate suppliers.

9. PRODUCT AND COMPONENTS CODING METHODS

PRODUCT AND COMPONENTS CODING METHODS

A comprehensive Product And Components Coding Method represents one of the important tasks related to the product, service, or process design. The prime purpose of this task is to enable the designer to provide the necessary description and identification of various parts designed in the design office. 

This method should be based on a logical numerical coding system, providing particular code-names for every item of a specific product or product range. One such coding system is termed the Family Name-First Name Method. 

A typical example of products and components coding based on the Family Name - First Name Method is illustrated below.

FAMILY NAME - FIRST NAME METHOD

1.

This method is based on classifying products into various groups or families with similar important characteristics.

2.

Each group will be given a separate number, the Family Name, and each product belonging to that group will be given a second separate number, the First Name.

3.

The components of each product will be given a third separate number called the Second Name.

4.

The sub-components may be given a third separate name, the Third Name, and so on.

5.

Every group, product, component, and sub-component, may be adequately coded and subsequently identified for design, modification, and manufacturing purposes.

6.

This method is very flexible and the numerical coding system can be expanded if necessary.

10. SMALL BUSINESS EXAMPLE
THE PRODUCT AND COMPONENTS CODING METHOD

THE FIRST NAME – THE FAMILY NAME METHOD

The Family Name The First Name The Second Name
01 - office furniture 01 - standard desk 01 - desktop
01 - office furniture 02 - computer desk 02 - stand
01 - office furniture 03 - boardroom desk 03 - drawer
01 - office furniture 04 - extra-large desk 04 - railing
01 - office furniture 05 - L-shaped desk 05 - handles

For example:

The product code for handles for an extra-large desk in the office furniture product range may be established as follows: Code: 01- 04- 05

11. THE PRODUCT MODIFICATION PROCEDURE

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE DESIGN OFFICE

When product design and modification procedures have been established, and the appropriate coding system has been developed, the Product Modification System must be implemented within the design office. 

The design office is responsible for the timely issue of all drawings related to product design and modifications. It is essential, therefore, that each drawing is properly checked and authorized by a project leader or an engineer responsible for product development and design. 

Every inaccuracy on a drawing issued by the design office to the production department causes unnecessary expenditure in materials and labor, delays the completion of a particular manufacturing process, and reduces overall efficiency within the production facility.

It is important, therefore, to develop a formalized Product Modification Procedure which will ensure control over any change in the existing product design. Such a procedure includes four steps illustrated below.

THE PRODUCT MODIFICATION PROCEDURE

Step 1: A Product Modification Proposal.

A modification has been proposed, for example, that would reduce the  final assembly cost of the completed product. This proposal should specify the drawing number of the component, the details of the change required, the degree of urgency, and details of potential savings.

Step 2: Product Modification Proposal Analysis.

Comments on this proposal should be made by relevant departments in order to establish the viability of the product modification. The production department, for example, may establish a need for re-tooling, the cost of which may exceed the savings in the assembly cost. All comments should be taken into account prior to the acceptance or rejection of the above proposal.

Step 3: Product Modification Proposal Acceptance.

If the analysis of a proposal indicates the viability of the product  modification, that proposal should be accepted and subsequently  implemented.

Step 4: Product Modification Record.

When the drawing must be amended as a result of the modification, all relevant details should be stated on the new drawing, providing a brief description of the change made, and the date. Old drawings must be removed and destroyed, or deleted to avoid unnecessary confusion.

12. DESIGN OFFICE PLANNING AND CONTROL

IMPORTANT GUIDELINES IN THE DESIGN OFFICE

Once the product modification procedure has been established, no drawing should be amended without proper maintenance of the above system. Moreover, it is essential to develop and implement effective controlling procedures within the Design Office.

DESIGN OFFICE PLANNING AND CONTROL

1.

Design Work Progress Report.  
All drafting and CAD work should be recorded in a Design Work Progress Report. A typical illustration of such a report is presented below. Allocation of work in the design office should be carried out in accordance with work priority and availability of the design staff.

2.

Design Time Allocation Schedule.  
All designers should develop and adhere to a Design Time Allocation Schedule conforming to specific planning requirements in the design office. This schedule must be prepared at least one week in advance in accordance with information summarized in the Design Work Progress Report. A typical illustration of a Design Time Allocation Schedule is presented below.

3.

Recording Of Work In The Design Office.  
After completing a particular design assignment, the actual performance dates and time taken should be recorded in the Design Work Progress Report.

4.

Work Performance Control In The Design Office.
Comparison between the planned and actual performance data helps to control the performance and identify the source and magnitude of possible inefficiencies in the design office.

5.

Drawing Issue And Revision Report.
Another important element of control in the design office entails numbering all new and revised drawings and recording them in the Drawing Issue And Revision Report. The primary purpose of this is to provide an accurate reference for each drawing currently in use. A typical illustration of a Drawing Issue and Revision Report is presented below.

 

IMPORTANCE OF GOOD HOUSEKEEPING IN THE DESIGN OFFICE

The ultimate price and quality of your company's products and services as well as the overall productivity and performance of your entire organization starts with the design effort in the design office. It is vitally important, therefore, to ensure a high standard of product, service, and process design combined with good housekeeping in the design and engineering department.

13. SMALL BUSINESS EXAMPLE
DESIGN WORK PROGRESS REPORT

DESIGN WORK PROGRESS REPORT

14. SMALL BUSINESS EXAMPLE
DESIGN TIME ALLOCATION SCHEDULE

 DESIGN TIME ALLOCATION SCHEDULE

15. SMALL BUSINESS EXAMPLE
DRAWING ISSUE AND REVISION REPORT

DRAWING ISSUE AND REVISION REPORT

16. FOR SERIOUS BUSINESS OWNERS ONLY

ARE YOU SERIOUS ABOUT YOUR BUSINESS TODAY?

Reprinted with permission.

17. THE LATEST INFORMATION ONLINE

WOULD YOU LIKE TO LEARN MORE?

Would you like to learn how to improve your personal business management knowledge and maximize your business performance through Lean Business Club?

When you are ready:

1.

Learn about the Membership Benefits, join Lean Business Club, and never feel lonely at the top again.

2.

Complete the Membership Form, or the Student Membership Form, and receive your free first-year membership.

3.

Save up to 75% off the regular subscription rate for complete access to the Lean Business 2100 Management Program online.

If you are U.S. Veteran, your membership in Lean Business Club and complete access to the Lean Business 2100 Management Program online will be available to you free of charge for an unlimited period.

 

LESSON FOR TODAY:
Whatever You Do - Design It First!