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FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
CHECK POINT 42: ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

Please Select Any Topic In Check Point 42 Below And Click.

1. what is an economic entity?
2. what is accounting information?
3. types of accounting information
4. financial accounting reports
5. management accounting reports
6. differences between financial and management accounting reports
7. generally accepted accounting principles
8. what do accountants do?
9. for serious business owners only
10. the latest information online
 

DO I NEED TO KNOW THIS CHECK POINT?

 

WELCOME TO CHECK POINT 42

TUTORIAL 1 General Management TUTORIAL 2 Human
Resources Management
TUTORIAL 3 Financial Management TUTORIAL 4 Operations Management TUTORIAL 5 Marketing
And Sales Management
1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96
2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97
3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 83 88 93 98
4 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 64 69 74 79 84 89 94 99
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
 

HOW CAN YOU BENEFIT FROM CHECK POINT 42?

 
The main purpose of this check point is to provide you and your management team with details about Accounting Information and how to apply this information to maximize your company's performance.
 
In this check point you will learn:
 
• What is an economic entity?
• About four basic types of business organization.
• What is accounting information?
• About two basic types of accounting information.
• About financial accounting reports.
• What is a balance sheet?
• What is an income statement?
• What is a cash flow statement?
• About four basic management accounting reports.
• About differences between financial and management accounting reports. and much more.
 

LEAN MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR CHECK POINT 42

 
You and your management team should become familiar with the basic Lean Management principles, guidelines, and tools provided in this program and apply them appropriately to the content of this check point.
 
You and your team should adhere to basic lean management guidelines on a continuous basis:
 
Treat your customers as the most important part of your business.
Provide your customers with the best possible value of products and services.
Meet your customers' requirements with a positive energy on a timely basis.
Provide your customers with consistent and reliable after-sales service.
Treat your customers, employees, suppliers, and business associates with genuine respect.
Identify your company's operational weaknesses, non-value-added activities, and waste.
Implement the process of continuous improvements on organization-wide basis.
Eliminate or minimize your company's non-value-added activities and waste.
Streamline your company's operational processes and maximize overall flow efficiency.
Reduce your company's operational costs in all areas of business activities.
Maximize the quality at the source of all operational processes and activities.
Ensure regular evaluation of your employees' performance and required level of knowledge.
Implement fair compensation of your employees based on their overall performance.
Motivate your partners and employees to adhere to high ethical standards of behavior.
Maximize safety for your customers, employees, suppliers, and business associates.
Provide opportunities for a continuous professional growth of partners and employees.
Pay attention to "how" positive results are achieved and constantly try to improve them.
Cultivate long-term relationships with your customers, suppliers, employees, and business associates.

1. WHAT IS AN ECONOMIC ENTITY?

THE PRIME PURPOSE OF THE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT PROCESS

Business owners and financial managers must be able to interpret various types of accounting information, which is an essential element in the management decision-making process in every organization.

The prime purpose of the Financial Management Process is to develop, implement, and maintain an effective accounting system within the organization.

The Accounting System is designed to provide quantitative information, primarily financial in nature, about economic entities that is intended to be useful in making economic decisions. (2).

ECONOMIC ENTITY

An Economic Entity, or a Business Entity, is an independent business enterprise that may be organized in one of the following forms illustrated below.

FOUR BASIC FORMS OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION

Sole
Proprietorship

Partnership

Corporation

Limited
Liability
Company

Different Forms Of Business Organization are discussed in detail in Tutorial 3.

Note:

Non-profit organizations are not discussed in this Tutorial.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Forms Of Business By Bob Litchfield.
Business Organizations By Hhscivics.
Main Types Of Business By Yerlanstudent.
Forms Of Business Organization By Greg Pierce.
Types And Features Of Business Entities By Acra.

2. WHAT IS ACCOUNTING INFORMATION?

IMPORTANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

Business owners and managers are constantly faced with the necessity of making decisions pertaining to various activities of their organization. Business owners, for example, may want to know about the company's profitability during a certain operating period, while the sales manager may seek to determine an adequate selling price for a new product or service.

In other instances, business owners and managers are requested to provide financial information to institutions when applying for additional funds or when preparing special reports for governmental organizations. It is apparent that such information, known as Accounting Information, plays an integral part in the business process.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Accounting Basics By Mexus Education.
Role Of Accounting By Brent Gregory.
Role Of Accounting In Business By The EXP Group.
Accounting Information Systems By Marianne Hart.
Accounting Information And Types By Alternate Learning.

3. TYPES OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

Accurate Accounting Information is a highly valuable management tool which is instrumental in coordinating important management decisions and in undertaking appropriate action in accordance with the overall objectives of the organization. 

An effective financial management system usually provides two different types of accounting information as illustrated below.

TWO TYPES OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION

 
External Reports
Or
Financial Accounting Reports
  Internal Reports
Or

Management Accounting Reports
These reports are prepared and presented to existing and potential shareholders, creditors, and tax authorities.

 

These reports are prepared and presented to management for internal operational use within the organization.
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Accounting Information System By Gem Yabut.
Accounting Information System By Carry Carder.
Accounting And Financial Management Part 1 By Karen Keppler.
Types Of Accounting And Accounting Information By Brian Routh.
Financial And Managerial Accounting Information By Larry Walter, SFI Training.

4. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING REPORTS

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING REPORTS

External reports, or Financial Accounting Reports, include three basic financial statements: the balance sheet, the income statement, and the statement of cash flows.

Financial accounting reports are usually submitted to company shareholders, present and potential creditors, e.g. banks and investors, and tax authorities. These reports provide important information pertaining to three basic elements of the company's well-being as illustrated below.

THREE BASIC FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

   
Balance
Sheet
  Income 
Statement
  Statement 
Of Cash Flows
This statement illustrates how solvent the company is, i.e. by how much its assets exceed its liabilities, or net worth.
 
This statement illustrates how profitable the company is, i.e. by how much its revenues exceed its expenditures, or net income.
 
This statement illustrates how liquid the company is, i.e. whether more cash is flowing into the company than out of it.
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

What Is A Balance Sheet? By Cliqvid.
The Balance Sheet By Brandon C. Folltz.
The Income Statement By Brandon C. Foltz.
The Cash Flow Statement By Brandon Foltz.
The Retained Earnings Statement By Brandon Foltz.

5. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING REPORTS

MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING REPORTS

Internal reports, or Management Accounting Reports, are designed for use in strategic planning, operational planning, and routine controlling activities.

Management accounting reports include a broad range of statements developed by the company's financial executive in accordance with the specific needs of the organization. Some of the most popular management accounting reports are illustrated below.

FOUR BASIC MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING REPORTS

     
Monthly Revenue
And Expenditure
Statement
  Monthly
Income
Statement
  Monthly
Debtors
Age Analysis
  Monthly
Creditors 
Age Analysis
This statement summarizes monthly and year-to-date revenues and expenses, compares same with corresponding budget projections, and determines variances

 
This statement summarizes monthly and year-to-date income or loss, compares same with corresponding budget projections, and determines variances
 
This statement summarizes the names of clients (debtors) who owe money to a company and the actual accounts receivable on a 1-30, 31-60, 61-90 day basis, or longer
 
This statement summarizes the names of suppliers (creditors) to whom a company owes money and the actual accounts payable on a 1-30, 31-60, 61-90 day basis, or longer
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Business Income And Expenditure Statement By More Business Club.
Income Statement Overview: Sales, Profit, And Loss By Alex Glassey.
Income Statement Continued: COGS, Gross Profit, Expenses By Alex Glassey.
Debtors Report Age Analysis 1 By IQPos.
Creditors Report Age Analysis 2 By IQPos.

6. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING REPORTS

FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING REPORTS

The basic differences between Financial Accounting Reports and Management Accounting Reports are summarized below.

BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FINANCIAL
AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING REPORTS

 
Financial Accounting Reports   Management Accounting Reports








Are verified by the company's auditors (CPAs) in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
Provide formal professional opinion.
Include information about the company's solvency, profitability, and liquidity.
Cover the performance of the organization as a whole.
Are used mainly by shareholders and external users, e.g. banks, suppliers, or tax authorities for evaluation purposes.
 











Are prepared by the staff within the company's financial department in accordance with the specific needs of the organization.
Provide informal management opinion. Include information about the company's current performance and provide comparison between actual and budgeted results.
Cover the detailed performance of the organization.
Are used mainly by internal users, e.g. top and middle level management for planning and controlling purposes.
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

Finance Vs. Accounting By ABlata.
Financial Accounting Vs. Managerial Accounting By Roger Gee.
Financial Vs. Managerial Accounting By Dennis Ensing, Start Me Up.
Financial Accounting Vs Managerial Accounting By Laura Cash 2486.
Financial Accounting Vs. Managerial Accounting By Education Unlocked.

7. GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES

GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES

Financial information is recorded in accordance with a particular set of rules known as the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. (GAAP).  

American Institute Of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has defined these principles as follows:

"The Generally Accepted Accounting Principles encompass the conventions,  rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time. "(3)

The Generally Accepted Accounting Principles have been developed by accountants over a period of many years and are subject to change in accordance with prevailing conditions and governmental requirements.

Several important organizations, that constantly influence the generally accepted accounting principles, are presented below.

ORGANIZATIONS THAT INFLUENCE 
THE GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES

1.

American Institute Of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).

2.

International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) ®.

3.

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).

4.

U.S. Securities And Exchange Commission (SEC).

5.

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) .

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

IFRS Vs. GAAP By Sierra Johnson.
Introduction To GAAP By John Webster.
Introduction To GAAP By Denise Dodson.
What Are US GAAP And IFRS By Kevin Kimball.
Convergence Of GAAP And IFRS By John Fleming, Loscalzo Assoc.

8. WHAT DO ACCOUNTANTS DO?

WHO ARE ACCOUNTANTS?

Financial accounting reports, or financial statements, are verified by the company's auditors, who are Certified Public Accountants (CPA). 

Independent CPAs are licensed by each state in a manner similar to the legal or medical professions. These CPAs are independent in the sense that they operate their own accounting practices and are not directly employed by the company whose statements they examine. As a part of their services, CPAs perform an unbiased audit of their clients' books and other related services outlined below.

As a result of the company's audit, the CPA will be able to express an opinion about the conformance of the company's financial statements to the generally accepted accounting principles. The CPA does not express an opinion as to the "fairness" of what the statements represent.

SERVICES PROVIDED BY CPAs

1.

Careful examination of the company's accounting and internal control systems.

2.

Verification of accounting records.

3.

Verification of existing inventory.

4.

Identification of amounts owed to the company (accounts receivable).

5.

Identification of amounts owed by the company (accounts payable).

6.

Preparation of financial statements.

7.

Preparations of tax returns.

Note: 

Please consult with your accountant regarding any additional information
 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ONLINE

What Does An Accountant Do? By Adam.
10 Things An Accountant Will Never Say By YourBigFutureaat.
What Does An Accountant Do? By Michael Ramond, And Jeff Roy.
What Does An Accountant Do? By Allie Gray Freeland And Kari Grittner.
What Does A Chartered Accountant Do? By Andrew Brown, Johnston Crocke.

9. FOR SERIOUS BUSINESS OWNERS ONLY

ARE YOU SERIOUS ABOUT YOUR BUSINESS TODAY?

Reprinted with permission.

10. THE LATEST INFORMATION ONLINE

WOULD YOU LIKE TO LEARN MORE?

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When you are ready:

1.

Learn about the Membership Benefits, join Lean Business Club, and never feel lonely at the top again.

2.

Complete the Membership Form, or the Student Membership Form, and receive your free first-year membership.

3.

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If you are U.S. Veteran, your membership in Lean Business Club and complete access to the Lean Business 2100 Management Program online will be available to you free of charge for an unlimited period.

 

LESSON FOR TODAY:
The Most Powerful Weapon For Achievement Is Information!

Joe Griffith